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ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE SOIL COVER ON THE SOUTH FAR EAST OF

RUSSIA (THE ROLE OF ANTROPOGENIC FACTOR)

Summary: A report reviews the basic ecological problems appearing under exploitation arable soils in Primorye and Priamurye. They are as follow: contamination of soils by heavy metals, dehumification, chemicalization effect in agriculture, etc. The possibilities and ways to conserve soil fertility are considered and discussed.

Key words: soil erosion, heavy metals, dehumification, biological methods, agriculture.

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Antivir, Laminaran and Fucoidan derived from Laminaria cichorioides were tested in field conditions, as stimulants of growth and development of Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L., and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Polysaccharides at different concentrations stimulate growth, productivity and morphological traits of barley, wheat and buckwheat. arbohydrate containing biopolymers derived from the sea algae effect differently upon rutin content in seeds and stems of buckwheat.

Key words: Plant growth stimulants, polysaccharides, algae, barley, wheat, buckwheat : , , - [1]. . , [2-5]. Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum Fagopyrum esculentum, .

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Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum . F. esculentum .

1. Zvyagintseva T.N., Shevchenko N.M., Nazarenko E.L., Gorbach V.I., Urvantseva A.M., Kiseleva M.I., Isakov V.V. Water-soluble polysaccharides of some brown algae of the Russian Far-East. Structure and biological action of water-soluble polyuronan // J. Exp. Marine Biol.

Ecol. 2005. 320: 123131.

2. Bingham I.J. and Stevenson E.A. Control of root growth: effects of carbohydrates on the extension, branching and rate of respiration of different fractions of wheat roots // Physiol. Plant.

1993. 88: 149158.

3. Cutillas-Iturralde A. and Lorences E.P. Effect of xyloglucan oligosaccharides on growth, viscoelastic properties, and long-term extension of pea shoots // Plant Physiol. 1997. 113: 103 109.

4. .., .., .. Lycopersicon esculentum M. Cucumis sativus L. // . 2002. (2): 105109.

5. .., .., .. // . 2005. (4): 5356.

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. 2011. 25 c.

8. .., .., .., .. -1,3;1,6 "", // . 1994. 336(5): 710711.

9. ohn J.A., BeMiller J.N. 13--D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: a review of structure-functional activity relationships // Carbohydr. Polymers. 1995. 28: 314.

10. Odetti P.R., Borgoglio A., Pascale A.D., Rolandi R., Adezad L. Prevention of diabetes increased aging effect on rat collagen-linked fluorescence by aminoguanidine and rutin.

Diabetes. 1990. 39: 796801.

11. Grinberg L.N., Rachmilewitz E.A., Newmark H. Protective effects of rutin against hemoglobin oxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994. 48: 64649.

12. He J., Klag M.J., Whelton P.K., Mo J.P., Chen J.Y., Qian M.C., Mo P.S., He G.Q. Oats and Buckwheat intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnic minority of China. Am J Clin. Nutr. 1995. 6: 366372.

13. Guardia T., Rotelli A.E., Juarez A.O., Pelzer L.E. Anti-inflammatory properties of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco. 2001. 56: 683387.

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, makeevao@gmail.com Recent advances of paleopedology confirm that paleosols determine biosphere-geosphere cycles from their origin in the Precambrian. Co-evolution of life and soil is a new paradigm for natural sciences. Ecology of paleosols is a newly emerging interdisciplinary research discipline.

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Shown how deficiencies in public administration and land legislation lead to ineffective control of the state of soil fertility, wich are in privately owned. For the monitoring the status of soil fertility was recommended to carry out mandatory certification of soils.

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Summary: The valuation of agroecological conditions of adaptive and landscape agriculture of the Amurskaya ablast of 5 agroclimatic zones and 9 agrolandscape regions has been carried out. The catography of soil, climate and landscape conditions is made according to the Geo Information System, technologies and digital maps.

Key words: landscape, agroecology, geoinformational ensuring.

Amur region occupies 11.7% of the territory of the Far East. Three large plains (Zeya-Bureya, Amur-Zeya, Verhnezeyskaya) allocated southern, central, northern, northern taiga, mountain taiga agroclimatic zones in which 59% of arable land is concentrated Far Eastern Federal District.

Area is complex and diverse agro-ecological conditions. Zeya-Bureya plain is a major agricultural area. It is located south of the northern border island permafrost. Natural soils and agrogenezis deep seasonal freezing conditions also imposed harsh winters with little snow, and alternating periods of waterlogging of the soil profile in the summer and autumn periods.

   

In this paper, all the names of soil types are given in accordance with the "Classification and Diagnostics of Soils of the USSR" (1977). Soil maps of agricultural enterprises, districts and regions were drawn AF "Dalgiprozem" with BSKHI-DalGAU and Amur branch VNIPTIM according to this classification.[1, 2] Meadow-chernozem soils occur on the 2nd terrace above the floodplain of the Zeya-Bureya plain in Tambov, Mikhailovsky, Ivanovo, Belogorskiy and much of the October and Romnenskogo areas.

Meadow gleyey and gley soils occupy 28% of arable land and deposits (485 hectares) of the region and distributed in all agricultural areas.

Brown forest gley soils are widespread in the Amur region in the same areas as the brown forest, but take flat tops and gently sloping ridges loops. Granulometric composition of the soil loamy and clayey. In the natural state of humus horizon low power.

Meadow-brown soils are transition from prairie to forest brown. They are found mainly on the lower slopes on the Amur-Zeya plain, on the 2nd and 3rd terraces above flood Zeya-Bureya plain.

Floodplain alluvial soils formed on modern alluvial deposits in floodplains of Amur, Zeya, Bureya and their tributaries. With the area of about 325 hectares, including 153.7 thousand hectares under cultivation or maintenance used is in deposits.

The second zone - central (predlesostepnaya). It is subdivided into three agrolandscape ZeyaBureya area (Table 1), east (Bureysky, Zavitinsk, October, Romnensky areas); North (Serishevski, Mazanovsky areas); Amur-Zeya Interfluves (Annunciation, Svobodnensky areas). Arable land area is 398.5 thousand hectares (62.6% of agricultural land area).

The main soil types are meadow and meadow gley - 43.7%, brown forest - 31.1%, meadowchernozem - 17.1%, meadow brown - 4.8%, alluvial - 3.3%. Bonitets on soil and climatic resources, this area is considerably inferior to the south. Specialization - soybeans, grain and fodder crops.

The third zone - North (Amur-Zeya pritaezhnaya). This area of the island permafrost. It is subdivided into two agrolandscape area (Table 1): Amur-Zeya Interfluves (Szymanowski district);

Amur-Zeya pritaezhny (Magdagachi, Zeya and Skovorodinsky areas).[2] Arable land area is 108.4 thousand hectares (54.2% of agricultural land area). The main soil types are: meadow gleyey and gley (50.2%), alluvial floodplain (25.8%), brown forest (18.1%), meadow brown (5.9%). Specialization in this area - the production of cattle feed, potatoes, buckwheat.



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